Oct 282017
 

So, this morning I decided to shut the whole lot down and switch to the new solar controller.  There’s some clean-up work to be done, but for now, it’ll do.  The new controller is a Powertech MP3735.  Supposedly this one can deliver 30A, and has programmable float and bulk charge voltages.  A nice feature is that it’ll disconnect the load when it drops below 11V, so finding the batteries at 6V should be a thing of the past!  We’ll see how it goes.

I also put in two current shunts, one on the feed into/out of the battery, and one to the load.  Nothing is connected to monitor these as yet, but some research suggested that while in theory it is just an op-amp needed, that op-amp has to deal with microvolt differences and noise.

There are instrumentation amplifiers designed for that, and a handy little package is TI’s INA219B.  This incorporates aforementioned amplifier, but also adds to that an ADC with an I²C interface.  Downside is that I’ll need an MCU to poll it, upside is that by placing the ADC and instrumentation amp in one package, it should cut down noise, further reduced if I mount the chip on a board bolted to the current shunt concerned.  The ADC measures bus voltage and temperature as well.  Getting this to work shouldn’t be hard.  (Yes, famous last words I know.)

A few days ago, I also placed an order for some more RAM for the two compute nodes.  I had thought 8GB would be enough, and in a way it is, except I’ve found some software really doesn’t work properly unless it has 2GB RAM available (Gitea being one, although it is otherwise a fantastic Git repository manager).  By bumping both these nodes to 32GB each (4×8GB) I can be less frugal about memory allocations.

I can in theory go to 16GB modules in these boxes, but those were hideously expensive last time I looked, and had to be imported.  My debit card maxes out at $AU999.99, and there’s GST payable on anything higher anyway, so there goes that idea.  64GB would be nice, but 32GB should be enough.

The fun bit though, Kingston no longer make DDR3 ECC SO-DIMMs.  The mob I bought the last lot though informed me that the product is no longer available, after I had sent them the B-Pay payment.  Ahh well, I’ve tossed the question back asking what do they have available that is compatible.

Searching for ECC SODIMMs is fun, because the search engines will see ECC and find ECC DIMMs (i.e. full-size).  When looking at one of these ECC SODIMM unicorns, they’ll even suggest the full-size version as similar.  I’d love to see the salespeople try to fit the suggested full-size DIMM into the SODIMM socket and make it work!

The other thing that happens is the search engine sees ECC and see that that’s a sub-string of non-ECC.  Errm, yeah, if I meant non-ECC, I’d have said so, and I wouldn’t have put ECC there.

Crucial and Micron both make it though, here’s hoping mixing and matching RAM from different suppliers in the same bank won’t cause grief, otherwise the other option is I pull the Kingston sticks out and completely replace them.

The other thing I’m looking at is an alternative to OpenNebula.  Something that isn’t a pain in the arse to deploy (like OpenStack is, been there, done that), that is decentralised, and will handle KVM with a Ceph back-end.

A nice bonus would be being able to handle cross-architecture QEMU VMs, in particular for ARM and MIPS targets.  This is something that libvirt-based solutions do not do well.

I’m starting to think about ways I can DIY that solution.  Blockchain was briefly looked at, and ruled out on the basis that while it’d be good for an audit log, there’s no easy way to index it: reading current values would mean a full-scan of the blockchain, so not a solution on its own.

CephFS is stable now, but I’m not sure how file locking works on it.  Then there’s object storage itself, librados.  I’m not sure if there’s a database engine that can interface to that, or maybe to Amazon S3 storage (radosgw can emulate that), that’ll be the next step.  Lots to think about.

Oct 242017
 

So yeah, it seems history repeats itself.  The Redarc BCDC1225 is not reliable in switching between solar inputs and 12V input derived from the mains.

At least this morning’s wake-up call was a little later in the morning:

From: ipmi@hydrogen.ipmi.lan
To: stuartl@longlandclan.id.au
Subject: IPMI hydrogen.ipmi.lan
Message-Id: <20171023194305.72ECB200C625@atomos.longlandclan.id.au>
Date: Tue, 24 Oct 2017 05:43:05 +1000 (EST)

Incoming alert
IP : xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx
Hostname: hydrogen.ipmi.lan
SEL_TIME:"1970/01/27 02:03:00" 
SENSOR_NUMBER:"30"
SENSOR_TYPE:"Voltage          "
SENSOR_ID:"12V             " 
EVENT_DESCRIPTION:"Lower Critical going low                                         "
EVENT_DIRECTION:"Assertion  "
EVENT SEVERITY:"non-critical"

We’re now rigging up the Xantrex charger that I was using in early testing and will probably use that for mains. I have a box wired up with a mains SSR for switching power to it.  I think that’ll be the long-term plan and the Redarc charger will be retired from service, perhaps we might use it in some non-critical portable station.

Oct 222017
 

So I’ve now had the solar panels up for a month now… and so far, we’ve had a run of very overcast or wet days.

Figures… and we thought this was the “sunshine state”?

I still haven’t done the automatic switching, so right now the mains power supply powers the relay that switches solar to mains.  Thus the only time my cluster runs from solar is when either I switch off the mains power supply manually, or if there’s a power interruption.

The latter has not yet happened… mains electricity supply here is pretty good in this part of Brisbane, the only time I recall losing it for an extended period of time was back in 2008, and that was pretty exceptional circumstances that caused it.

That said, the political football of energy costs is being kicked around, and you can bet they’ll screw something up, even if for now we are better off this side of the Tweed river.

A few weeks back, with predictions of a sunny day, I tried switching off the mains PSU in the early morning and letting the system run off the solar.  I don’t have any battery voltage logging or current logging as yet, but the system went fine during the day.  That evening, I turned the mains back on… but the charger, a Redarc BCDC1225, seemingly didn’t get that memo.  It merrily let both batteries drain out completely.

The IPMI BMCs complained bitterly about the sinking 12V rail at about 2AM when I was sound asleep.  Luckily, I was due to get up at 4AM that day.  When I tried checking a few things on the Internet, I first noticed I didn’t have a link to the Internet.  Look up at the switch in my room and saw the link LED for the cluster was out.

At that point, some choice words were quietly muttered, and I wandered downstairs with multimeter in hand to investigate.  The batteries had been drained to 4.5V!!!

I immediately performed some load-shedding (ripped out all the nodes’ power leads) and power-cycled the mains PSU.  That woke the charger up from its slumber, and after about 30 seconds, there was enough power to bring the two Ethernet switches in the rack online.  I let the voltage rise a little more, then gradually started re-connecting power to the nodes, each one coming up as it was plugged in.

The virtual machine instances I had running outside OpenNebula came up just fine without any interaction from me, but  it seems OpenNebula didn’t see it fit to re-start the VMs it was responsible for.  Not sure if that is a misconfiguration, or if I need to look at an alternate solution.

Truth be told, I’m not a fan of libvirt either… overly complicated for starting QEMU VMs.  I might DIY a solution here as there’s lots of things that QEMU can do which libvirt ignores or makes more difficult than it should be.

Anyway… since that fateful night, I have on two occasions run the cluster from solar without incident.  On the off-chance though, I have an alternate charger which I might install at some point.  The downside is it doesn’t boost the 12V input like the other one, so I’d be back to using that Xantrex charger to charge from mains power.

Already, I’m thinking about the criteria for selecting a power source.  It would appear there are a few approaches I can take, I can either purely look at the voltages seen at the solar input and on the battery, or I can look at current flow.

Voltage wise, I tried measuring the solar panel output whilst running the cluster today.  In broad daylight, I get 19V off the panels, and at dusk it’s about 16V.

Judging from that, having the solar “turn on” at 18V and “turn off” at 15V seems logical.  Using the comparator approach, I’d need to set a reference of 16.5V and tweak the hysteresis to give me a ±3V swing.

However, this ignores how much energy is actually being produced from solar in relation to how much is being consumed.  It is possible for a day to start off sunny, then for the weather to cloud over.  Solar voltage in that case might be sitting at the 16V mentioned.

If the current is too low though, the cluster will drain more power out than is going in, and this will result in the exact conditions I had a few weeks ago: a flat battery bank.  Thus I’m thinking of incorporating current shunts both on the “input” to the battery bank, and to the “output”.  If output is greater than input, we need mains power.

There’s plenty of literature about interfacing to current shunts.  I’ll have to do some research, but immediately I’m thinking an op-amp running from the battery configured as a non-inverting DC gain block with the inputs going to either side of the current shunt.

Combining the approaches is attractive.  So turn on when solar exceeds 18V, turn off when battery output current exceeds battery input current.  A dual op-amp, a dual comparator, two current shunts, a R-S flip-flop and a P-MOSFET for switching the relay, and no hysteresis calculations needed.

Oct 102017
 

So, over the last few years, computing power has gotten us to the point where remotely operated aerial vehicles are not only a thing, but are cheap and widely available.

There are of course, lots of good points about these toys, lots of tasks in which they can be useful.  No, I don’t think Amazon Prime is one of them.

They come with their risks though, and there’s a big list of do’s and don’ts regarding their use.  For recreational use, CASA for example, have this list of rules.  This includes amongst other things, staying below 120m altitude, and 30m away from any person.

For a building, that might as well be 30m from the top of the roof, as you cannot tell if there are people within that building, or where in that building those people reside, or from what entrance they may exit.

I in principle have no problem with people playing around with them.  I draw the line where such vehicles enter a person’s property.

The laws are rather lax about what is considered trespass with regards to such vehicles.  The no-brainer is if the vehicle enters any building or lands (controlled or otherwise) on any surface within the property.  A big reason for this is that the legal system often trails technological advancement.

This does not mean it is valid to fly over someone’s property.  For one thing, you had better ensure there is absolutely no chance that your device might malfunction and cause damage or injury to any person or possession on that property.

Moreover, without speaking to the owner of said property, you make it impossible for that person to take any kind of preventative action that might reduce the risk of malfunction, or alert you to any risks posed on the property.

In my case, I operate an amateur radio station.  My transmitting equipment is capable of 100W transmit power between 1.8MHz and 54MHz, 50W transmit power between 144MHz and 148MHz, and 20W transmit power between 420MHz and 450MHz, using FM, SSB, AM and CW, and digital modes built on these analogue modulation schemes.

Most of my antennas are dipoles, so 2.2dBi, I do have some higher-gain whips, and of course, may choose to use yagis or even dish antennas.  The stations that I might choose to work are mostly terrestrial in nature, however, airborne stations such as satellites, or indeed bouncing off objects such as the Moon, are also possibilities.

Beyond the paperwork that was submitted when applying for my radio license (which for this callsign, was filed about 9 years ago now, or for my original callsign was filed back in December 2007), there is no paperwork required to be submitted or filled out prior to me commencing transmissions.  Not to the ACMA, not to CASA, not to registered drone operators in the local area, not anybody.

While I’ve successfully operated this station with no complaints from my neighbours for nearly 10 years… it is worth pointing out that the said neighbours are a good distance away from my transmitting equipment.  Far enough away that the electromagnetic fields generated are sufficiently diminished to pose no danger to themselves or their property.

Any drone that enters the property, is at risk of malfunction if it strays too close to transmitting antennas.  If you think I will cease activity because you are in the area, think again.  There is no expectation on my part that I should alter my activities due to the presence of a drone.  It is highly probable that, whilst being inside, I am completely unaware of your device’s presence.  I cannot, and will not, take responsibility for your device’s electromagnetic immunity, or lack thereof.

In the event that it does malfunction though… it will be deemed to have trespassed if it falls within the property, and may be confiscated.  If it causes damage to any person or possession within the property, it will be confiscated, and the owner will be expected to pay damages prior to the device’s return.

In short, until such time as the laws are clarified on the matter, I implore all operators of these devices, to not fly over any property without the express permission of the owner of that property.  At least then, we can all be on the same page, we can avoid problems, and make the operation safer for all.