So, at present I’ve been using a two-charger solution to keep the batteries at full voltage. On the solar side is the Powertech MP3735, which also does over-discharge protection. On the mains side, I’m using a Xantrex TC2012.
One thing I’ve observed is that the TC2012, despite being configured for AGM batteries, despite the handbook saying it charges AGM batteries to a maximum 14.3V, has a happy knack of applying quite high charging voltages to the batteries.
I’ve verified this… every meter I’ve put across it has reported it at one time or another, more than 15V across the terminals of the charger. I’m using SB50 connectors rated at 50A and short runs of 6G cable to the batteries. So a nice low-resistance path.
The literature I’ve read says 14.8V is the maximum. I think something has gone out of calibration!
This, and the fact that the previous set-up over-discharged the batteries twice, are the factors that lead to the early failure of both batteries.
The two new batteries (Century C12-105DA) are now sitting in the battery cases replacing the two Giant Energy batteries, which will probably find themselves on a trip to the Upper Kedron recycling facility in the near future.
The Century batteries were chosen as I needed the replacements right now and couldn’t wait for shipping. This just happened to be what SuperCheap Auto at Keperra sell.
The Giant Energy batteries took a number of weeks to arrive: likely because the seller (who’s about 2 hours drive from me) had run out of stock and needed to order them in (from China). If things weren’t so critical, I might’ve given those batteries another shot, but I really didn’t have the time to order in new ones.
I have disconnected the Xantrex TC2012. I really am leery about using it, having had one bad experience with it now. The replacement batteries cost me $1000. I don’t want to be repeating the exercise.
I have a couple of options:
- Ditch the idea of using mains power and just go solar.
- Dig out the Redarc BCDC1225 charger I was using before and hook that up to a regulated power supply.
- Source a new 20A mains charger to hook in parallel with the batteries.
- Hook a dumb fixed-voltage power supply in parallel with the batteries.
- Hook a dumb fixed-voltage power supply in parallel with the solar panel.
Option (1) sounds good, but what if there’s a run of cloudy days? This really is only an option once I get some supervisory monitoring going. I have the current shunts fitted and the TI INA219Bs for measuring those shunts arrived a week or so back, just haven’t had the time to put that into service. This will need engineering time.
Option (2) could be done right now… and let’s face it, its problem was switching from solar to mains. In this application, it’d be permanently wired up in boost mode. Moreover, it’s theoretically impossible to over-discharge the batteries now as the MP3735 should be looking after that.
Option (3) would need some research as to what would do the job. More money to spend, and no guarantee that the result will be any better than what I have now.
Option (4) I’m leery about, as there’s every possibility that the power supply could be overloaded by inrush current to the battery. I could rig up a PWM circuit in concert with the monitoring I’m planning on putting in, but this requires engineering time to figure out.
Option (5) I’m also leery about, not sure how the panels will react to having a DC supply in parallel to them. The MP3735 allegedly can take an input DC supply as low as 9V and boost that up, so might see a 13.8V switchmode PSU as a solar panel on a really cloudy day. I’m not sure though. I can experiment, plug it in and see how it reacts. Research gives mixed advice, with this Stack Exchange post saying yes and this Reddit thread suggesting no.
I know now that the cluster averages about 7A. In theory, I should have 30 hours capacity in the batteries I have now, if I get enough sun to keep them charged.
This I think, will be a week-end experiment, and maybe something I’ll try this weekend. Right now, the cluster itself is running from my 40A switchmode PSU, and for now, it can stay there.
I’ll let the solar charger top the batteries up from the sun this week. With no load, the batteries should be nice and full, ready come Friday evening, when I can, gracefully, bring the cluster down and hook it up to the solar charger load output. If, at the end of the weekend, it’s looking healthy, I might be inclined to leave it that way.